New Challenges and Developments in Life Courses and Related Policies Affecting Women’s Old-Age Pensions

There is a considerable gender pension gap within the European Union related to acquired entitlements and (if there is an entitlement) also related to the amounts of resulting old-age pensions. Both can be traced back to different life patterns of women and men. Political areas on the European and national level, which are relevant in the context of the corresponding debate, are equality policy, employment policy and pension policy. Those have proven to be quite successful in the prevention of gender-specific discrimination. During the last decades, many pension reforms in Europe targeted the adequacy of pensions, the adaptability of pension systems to changing environments, and the safeguarding of financial sustainability, with mixed outcomes related to the pension entitlements of women. The analysis will look at the kind and areas of policy reforms, favourable pension systems or elements as well as their policy impact and will also point towards policy recommendations based on good practices (What should the national states do?) and (potential) improvements over time.